Research and Practice33 3: This was made possible by his recovering his belief in the good mother and his ability to sexually gratify her with his good penis and plentiful semen. The remainder reported either losing all sexual drive or attempting to remain celibate, with no change in attraction. According to Shader Liu, a member of Taichung's Gender Equality Committee, any group - medical, civil or religious - that practices the treatment is violating the Taiwanese Physicians Act and Psychologists Act. They're pushed out through a thriving network of courses and mentors in the borderless world of cyberspace, cloaked in the terminology of 'self improvement' or 'spiritual healing. Retrieved 29 November
Additionally, the Pan American Health Organization recommended that such practices be denounced and subject to sanctions and penalties under national legislation, as they constitute a violation of the ethical principles of health care and violate human rights that are protected by international and regional agreements.
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Retrieved 5 March Before the American Psychological Association's decision to remove homosexuality from the DSMpractitioners of conversion therapy employed aversive conditioning techniquesinvolving electric shock and nausea-inducing drugs during presentation of same-sex erotic images. Supporters of SOCE focus on patient self-determination when discussing whether therapy should be available. In Marcha majority of against representatives in the European parliament passed a resolution condemning conversion therapy and urging European Union member states to ban the practice. In she gave a lecture about treatment of homosexuality which was criticised by Edmund Berglerwho emphasised the oral fears of patients and minimized the importance of the phallic castration fears she had discussed. Retrieved June 2,
Ina mother asked Freud to treat her son. In Februaryowners of a conversion therapy camp were found guilty of murder, child abuse and assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm after three teens were found dead at the camp. Edmund Bergler was the most important psychoanalytic theorist of homosexuality in the s. Freud's main discussion of female homosexuality was the paper "The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman", which described his analysis of a young woman who had entered therapy because her parents were concerned that she was a lesbian. Haldeman argues that, due to concern for people whose "spiritual or religious concerns" may assume priority over their sexual orientation, mental health organizations do not ban conversion therapy outright. Haldeman notes that Bieber's methodology has been criticized because it relied upon a clinical sample, the description of the outcomes was based upon subjective therapist impression, and follow-up data were poorly presented.